Ultimate Tips to Increase Penis Size and Girth Naturally

July 24, 2020

A recent study conducted by the University of Kentucky found that 40% of the 14,000 men who took part in a study, wanted a thicker and longer dick. It is a universal truth that men across all regions want to be well endowed. The obsession is such that many men undergo penis enlargement surgery also known as penoplasty in an attempt to have a longer schlong.

All the guys out there who are reading this article trust us, it is not the only option out there, there are many ways by which you can increase your penis size and bring about the desired change in the size of your penis, all you have to do is follow certain rules and be consistent with your exercises. In this article, we will be covering the following topics.


Table of Contents

How Important is the Penis Size?

As they all say it, size does matter to an extent and it has been raising a debate since ages because there may be some other causes as well which affect your sexual life. And they are very much curable so don’t panic. But if you intend to go for male enhancement or penis enlargement techniques as you somewhere end up failing at the pleasure quotient, natural as well as other remedies come to the rescue.
Factors apart from the size may affect your sexual health are:
• Health Conditions like Diabetes, Erectile Dysfunction 
• Stress, Anxiety and Panic Disorder  
• Some by-birth sexual disorders- but don’t worry; they do have the cure, for instance, penile implants, penis enhancement pills etc.

What is the Average Size of Penis?

An average flaccid, pendulous penis is 9.16 cm in length while an average erect penis is 13.12 cm long. The average flaccid mid-shaft girth is between 8.55-10 cm and for an erect penis, it is 12.3 centimeters at mid-shaft and around 13.5 centimeters at the base.

If your measurements are at par with the above values then you guys don’t need to worry, and if your measurements fall short then also you don’t need to worry as there are so many natural methods which you can employ to increase the girth and length of your penis.

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How to measure your penile girth?

You can measure the girth of your penis by using just three things:
a string, a marker, and a measuring tape.

• Wrap the thread around the mid of your penis when there is no erection.
• Mark the point where the two ends of the thread meet.
• Measure the string with the help of the tape.
• This will give you girth of your flaccid penis.

For the erect penis follow the same method to get your erect penile girth.

Always remember to measure along the middle of the shaft which is the widest point of the penis. Mid-shaft measurements are usually used in study measurements.

Another important thing to keep in mind when taking daily measurements is that while taking girth measurements you need to be totally consistent in your methods.

So, always measure at the same point along the shaft and always at the same level of hardness.

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How to Increase Penis Size Naturally

There are many natural as well as clinical ways which can help you increase the penis size. In clinical ways, there are various surgical and non-surgical techniques for penis enlargement.

Let’s explore all kinds of penis enlargement techniques here:

• Natural supplements and herbs for increasing penile size
• Minerals and Vitamins for increasing the penile girth
• Food items that really help in increasing penile girth
• Exercises for increasing the penile girth

Natural supplements and herbs for increasing penis size:

If you wish to increase penile girth naturally, you can use several herbs for stimulating the flow of blood and help it get erect temporarily. Let’s first discuss the herbs which can make your penis longer and wider.

• Ginseng: A top herb for increasing penile girth is ginseng. It increases the circulation of blood to the penis leading to a full erection. In a study conducted in South Korea, it was found that men who took ginseng extract experienced improved sexual function.

• Ginkgo Biloba: As per a study conducted at the University of California, Ginkgo is very effective in increasing the penile girth. The penis enlargement community has reported that Ginkgo supplementation helps in considerable improvement in the quality of erections and improving the size of the penis.

• Maca: This herb is available in powder form and can be used for male sexual issues. It provides an easy, natural and safe way to increase the length and girth of the penis particularly when it is used in conjunction with a male enhancement supplement.

• L-Arginine: It is an amino acid which increases the blood flow, making the penis larger during an erection. It can help improve the length and girth of the penis, giving you ample benefits. It causes the outer tissue of the penis to expand, making it longer and thicker when erect. It does not simply make your penis look larger but it actually increases the size. The increase in girth will improve the satisfaction that both sexual partners will receive.

Minerals and Vitamins for Increasing the Penile Girth:

In this section, we will discuss natural ways of increasing length and girth of your Mr. Dickie by consuming some minerals and vitamins.

• Folic Acid (vitamin B9): It is a noteworthy member of vitamin B family. It helps to improve blood flow to the penis and makes it look bigger and thicker. It is present in various foods like beets, lentils, beans, broccoli, avocado

• Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5): It improves the girth of the penis and enhances the internal cell metabolism and helps in fighting infections. It boosts the health of the central nervous system and thus you can expect great benefits for your penis. Some of the foods rich in vitamin B5 are chicken liver, mushrooms, salmon, avocado, corn and broccoli. So, getting a bigger dick is plain inexpensive and easy.

• Niacin (vitamin B3): The next time you are preparing to get freaky in bed, consume food that contains vitamin B3. Foods containing this vitamin include chicken breasts, peanuts, mushrooms, green peas, tuna etc.

• Vitamin E: This miracle vitamin is not only used for treating Erectile Dysfunction (ED) but also helps the penis get a better size as it improves the blood flow. Some of the popular foods rich in vitamin E are spinach, kale, almonds, Swiss Chard etc.

• Boron: Apart from giving you better bone health, the mineral has the ability to boost the levels of testosterone and improve the mental health. Well, mental health is equally important when it comes to having sex with your partner. So, what are you waiting for? Include this nutrient and reap the benefits.

• Zinc: This is another mineral that can help you get a longer dick and also increase the girth. Zinc helps you recover faster from wear and tear of jelqing and stretching. Higher testosterone levels, better production of semen are all the benefits that can be realized from the intake of this nutrient.

• Asphaltum Punjabianum: It is a kind of mineral resin that exudates from the cracks of the rocks of the Himalayas. This resin has natural aphrodisiac properties and it will give you a bigger size and make you last longer in bed and improve your fertility.

Food items that really help in increasing penile girth:

Incorporating these food items in your daily diet can have a drastic effect on the size of your manhood:


Foods for penis growth:

  • Onions: It increases the blood circulation throughout your body and takes it to your heart. It prevents blood clotting and what people rarely feel that it also increases blood circulation to the penis which helps to increase girth.


  • Salmon: It is great for blood thinning and helps blood circulate well throughout the body. Foods that generate blood flow in the body also help in a firmer erection. Salmon is rich in omega 3 and other fatty oils which further helps in blood thinning and proper blood flow.


  • Bananas: Bananas are highly recommended for penis enlargement. It is good for your heart as well as for the circulation of blood in the body.


  • Broccoli: It is a great vegetable for strengthening the muscle of your penis. Maybe you do not feel any growth in the penis circumference and size once you start taking it but you feel stiffer than before. You can also try sweet potato, carrot or tomatoes in place of broccoli if you do not like it.


  • Low-fat yogurt: It contains a high amount of lean protein which helps in increasing average girth of penis.


  • Dark chocolates: Dark chocolates contain a phytochemical known as flavonol. It is found in plant-based foods and beverages. Dark chocolates are good for increasing blood flow to the penis.


  • Honey: It is also very beneficial for enriching the orgasmic experience as it helps in promoting the testosterone level.


  • Eggs: Eggs are useful for making penile tissues and also control the hormone level. They provide a high level of protein to the body as well.


  • Garlic: It contains a high amount of allicin, a compound which helps in increasing blood flow to your body and promotes the growth of the penis girth. It protects your heart as well.


  • Figs: It contains a high amount of amino acid which helps in boosting sexual stamina and libido.

fig to-increase-penis-size

  • Water: Adequate intake of water per day helps in increasing the size of the penis. Water is also helpful in setting up the penis hang in the straight direction.


  • Pumpkin seeds: Seeds or nuts are very useful for enlargement of the penis as they contain a high amount of amino acid. You can replace pumpkin seed with any other seed as well.

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Exercises for Increasing the Penis Size:

Jelqing: It is the simplest form of physical exercise which is performed to promote the circulation of blood and pressure in the penis which naturally enlarges its girth and length. This exercise should be followed on a regular basis to see the results over the months.


  • Apply a lubricant for safety and comfort. Take natural products like coconut oil, baby oil and petroleum jelly.
  • It gives better results if you have a partial erection of penis around 50-70%.
  • Make an ”OK” sign using your thumb and index finger together.
  • Grip at the base of your penis with ”OK”. Putting a light pressure on your penis, grip up the shaft of the penis. Stop before you reach the glans.
  • Repeat this motion for just 10 minutes.

Do not jelq in case of a full erection. To prevent injury always wrap a hot towel around the penis every time you follow the exercise. Do not tighten the grip too much and stop there if you feel pain.

Stretching: This is one of the most-performed exercises to increase penis length. It works great with jelqing to boost overall size. You should do this activity when your penis is full flaccid. It does not matter whether you are sitting or standing.


  • Just hold your penis behind the head and pull gently for 30 seconds in downwards, up, straight out, right and left direction. Always wrap a hot towel before you start this exercise.


  • Do not overdo this exercise. Overstretching of the penis can give you injury. If you
    feel pain, please stop there to avoid getting injured.

Apart from these exercises there are a few stretching devices in the market which may help people who are looking for penis enlargement. Penis pumps and penile traction devices are majorly popular. Penis pumps are cylinder shaped and air-filled chamber which is supposed to be attached to the pelvic area. They apparently cause immediate erection. On the other hand, penile traction devices pull on the penis to modify its curvature.
But these devices have not been proved that effective as various researches state so. Even a NCBI report on the same clarifies things better. [1

Edging: It simply means masturbating to the point of no return till you ejaculate. In this, you should hold yourself back from an orgasm as long as possible and maintain a full erection. Through an extended erection, you pull more blood to the penis which helps in the growth of the penis. There is no time limit for this exercise. As long as you can hold yourself back, you can keep doing this exercise. You will find that your penis is getting better and better day by day and you can extend the time of exercise according to your stamina of holding yourself back.


  • Lubricate the penis.
  • When you stroke the base of the penis while masturbating, do it slowly moving up the shaft as you go. Avoid frenulum and the head of the penis.
  • If you feel like ejaculation, back off and keep stroking if you can but slow down and move your hand back down towards the base.

Squeezing: Research says that this exercise gives you the most dramatic change in the penile girth. But you should do this exercise with more caution.


  • Form an ”OK” with one hand and use that grip to hold the penis at the base.
  • Form ”OK” with other hand as well.
  • Use that hand for squeezing your penis at various length and stop before you reach the glans.
  • It creates the stretch through the areas you are not stretching. It will stretch out your tissues.


  • Too much on the penis can cause injury. If you are a beginner, stop doing squeezing and stick to the other exercises like jelqing and edging and gentle stretching you can do.

Along with these natural ways and exercises, there are various other methods to achieve it. Read more about male enhancement drugs and penile implants as well.

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When it is about providing sexual pleasure, most men and women would agree that penile width is significantly important. Penile girth and length do act as some bit of a visual turn on. Women seem to be insatiably drawn to the penis with good length and girth. Thus, there is no doubt that increasing the penis girth will make a huge difference in your sex life. To increase the penis girth naturally, you must be ready and committed to achieve a good result.

Ultimate Tips to Improve Your Digestion

July 24, 2020

Digestion means breaking down what we eat into simpler and smaller components till they get fully absorbed and assimilated by the body. Chemically, digestion is breaking large insoluble food molecules into water-soluble food molecules, so that these can get easily absorbed by the blood plasma, which has a watery base.

Poor digestion can take a toll on your life. Many conditions are linked to poor digestion. Whether it is bloating, gas or constipation; all are related to poor functioning of the digestive system. Besides having pain in the gut, there are many other indicators of a poorly working digestive system, such as diarrhea, nausea, flatulence and belching.

Poor digestion can lead to bad breath. It also causes an imbalance with digestive tract bacteria. It can even give you acne and many other skin conditions like eczema, psoriasis and dermatitis. Being obese or underweight could be a direct consequence of poor digestion. Poor digestion can weaken your immunity, making you more prone to get infections. Likewise, obesity can lead to various ailments like diabetes and heart diseases.

There are many medications to treat poor digestion. Some commonly used medicines are ranitidine, magnesium hydroxide, famotidine, antacids, laxatives, to name a few. All these medicines are either available over-the-counter (OTC) or as prescriptions drugs. However, while choosing medicines, what is most important is that it must be safe yet effective.

Natural ways of treating poor digestion are an attractive alternative to prescription or even OTC drugs, but such methods can only be opted when your problem is mild. In case you have been facing the problem for quite a long time, and the condition is gradually getting worse, it is advisable to consult a doctor for proper check-up. However, you can freely go for natural ways if your condition is not severe and temporary. Fortunately, these methods don’t come with any side effect, and are known to offer long-term benefits. Moreover, the methods involved in this type of treatment usually entail dietary and lifestyle changes.

As a matter of fact, your digestive system is directly affected by the foods you consume, and the kind of lifestyle you follow. By following the below-discussed natural tips for improving the health of your digestive tract, you may allow your digestive system to function effectively, which can eventually give you a sense of wellbeing.

Tips for better digestive health include the following:

Make Your Diet Rich In Fiber

According to leading nutritionists, eating a diet rich in fiber and whole grains and vegetables is a good practice. A high-fiber diet helps in moving the food through your digestive system and prevents you from getting constipation. A fiber-rich diet can be even used for the treatment of digestive conditions like irritable bowel syndrome.

Make Your Diet Rich In Fiber for Digestion

Restrict Diet that is High In Fat

Fatty foods slow down the process of digestion making your chances of having constipation higher. Consuming fatty foods with high-fiber diet will make it easy for the digestive system to digest the foods.

Restrict Diet that is High In Fat for Digestion

Consume Both Insoluble and Soluble Fiber

Body does not digest insoluble fiber. Thus, it adds roughage and bulk to the stool. You can get insoluble fiber from wheat bran and vegetables. Soluble fiber prevents watery stools. Foods rich in soluble fiber are oat bran, nuts and legumes.

Consume Both Insoluble and Soluble Fiber for Digestion

Include Probiotics in Your Diet

Probiotics are healthy bacteria present in the digestive tract. They keep the body healthy by fighting against the ill-effects of antibiotics, stress and poor diet. Additionally, probiotics boost the absorption of nutrients, strengthen the immune system and helps in the breakdown of lactose. Health experts recommend good sources of probiotics like yogurt and kefir.

Include Probiotics in Your Diet for Digestion

Don’t Miss the Schedule

It is believed that to keep the digestive system working properly, snacks and meals should be consumed on a specified schedule. Have your breakfast, lunch, dinner at around the same time every day.

Don't Miss the Schedule for Digestion

Remain Hydrated

Water is good for your digestive system. Fiber extracts water in the colon for creating softer stools, so that these may be passed without much effort.

Remain Hydrated for Digestion

Avoid Smoking, Alcohol and Caffeine

Alcohol, cigarettes, coffee can intervene with the functioning of the digestive system, and cause problems like stomach ulcers. Hence, it is advised to cut out on them.

Avoid Smoking, Alcohol and Caffeine for Digestion

Regular Exercise

It helps keep the food moving through the digestive system. It is also helpful for constipated individuals. In addition, it works to give you a healthy weight. So, exercise must be incorporated in the daily schedule of activities.

Regular Exercise for Digestion

Chew your Food Thoroughly

Digestion of food starts right in the mouth when it gets mixed with saliva and enzymes. Enzymes help in the breakdown of food and also attack bad bacteria. Chewing is the first stage of proper digestion. Digestion becomes difficult if food is not chewed properly.

Chew your Food Thoroughly for Digestion

Drink Ginger Tea with Meals

Ginger has been known as a natural remedy for treating digestive issues. Ginger helps relax the muscles of the intestines; thereby, relieving symptoms of gas and cramps. According to a study, ginger speeds up the movement of food from the stomach into the small intestine.

Drink Ginger Tea with Meals for Digestion

Add Peppermint in your Diet

Peppermint helps in digestion and prevents related disorders. The compound present in it helps treat gas, bloating and intestinal cramps. You can drink peppermint tea once or twice a day. To make the tea, add 1 tablespoon of peppermint leave extract to hot water.

Add Peppermint in your Diet for Digestion

Fennel Seeds

This can be used to treat stomach acidity and indigestion. After having your meal, eat 1 tablespoon of fennel seeds. These also provide relief from bloating and intestinal spasms.

Fennel Seeds for Digestion


It is very useful in treating gas, stomach upset and pain in the stomach. To improve digestion, mix asafetida in a glass of warm water and consume it after meals.

Asafetida for Digestion

Apple Cider Vinegar

It has an alkalizing effect on the body. It is useful in conditions of poor digestion, bloating, stomach aches, gas and heartburn.

Apple Cider Vinegar for Digestion

Psyllium Husk

It improves the overall health of the digestive system. This adds bulk to your stool, and thus, bowel movements are made easy. Mix about 1 tablespoon of psyllium husk in warm milk and drink it at night before going to bed.

Psyllium Husk for Digestion

Aloe Vera

It has strong laxative properties. Also, polysaccharides present in it are known to be helpful in treating digestive disorders like stomach ulcers.

Aloe Vera for Digestion

To conclude, we can say that when the digestive system does not work properly, the body sends out signals for the same in the form of excessive gas, bloating, acidity, loose motions, and so on. These conditions may seem out of control, but the reality is that through simple changes in our lifestyle, diet and physical activity, we can improve the health of the digestive system. This in turn, would help us in keeping at bay more serious conditions that can be a direct or indirect consequence of poor digestion.

Is the terror of anticipation and panic worsening the impact of COVID-19 crisis?

July 24, 2020

This is what a normal day in the life of an average Earthling stuck in quarantine sounds like – you wake up with a sigh of doom and disappointment, your morning lacks the usual zing, you are not getting ready to leave for work anymore, the morning coffee isn’t anywhere close to what it used to be, you immerse yourself in mobile screens and keyboard clicks; only Netflix, no chill; only Apple, no innovation; and only life but no fun.

Constantly surrounded by the chatter of the COVID-19, a number of cases crossing millions, still no vaccine to be found, debilitating economic conditions, global recession right down the corner, but still nothing to be cheerful about. You see the whole day pass by like a high-speed train at a boring train station, you end up eating three meals a day with no significant physical activity to make you feel light and energetic, then finally you decide to move from the couch to the bed at night thinking that next-day might be better, but guess what you have trouble sleeping because you can’t stop thinking about the novel Coronavirus.

Recognizing COVID-19 as a mental disaster
recognizing mental problems

Pandemics like the coronavirus are not just medical emergencies that attack our physical strength, they also destruct the normal way of our lives. They throw off every big or small plan that we have for ourselves, completely disrupting every kind of progressive advancement, personal or professional.

You are constantly surrounded by a discomforting vibe of spook that beat the daylights out of your plans of weekday meeting, weekend picnics, planned celebrations, holidays and even the birth of your first child. Great and small, every life plan is derailed because of the consistent spread of the virus, and this consistent failure to not have the privilege of moving on with our usual life is having a severe psychological impact on your mental state.

Hence, it’s extremely crucial to understand the different ways in which coronavirus impacts our lives:

1. Horrors of another pandemic, if you have also experienced other pandemics in the past.
2. The constant fear of going unemployed and bankrupt
3. Constantly worried about the well-being of your family and your loved ones.
4. Increased self-isolation paving way more elevated sense of loneliness and depression.
5. Not being able to step out of the house because of fear
6. Humiliation and stigmatizing of the individuals who are suffering from symptoms of the COVID-19
7. Obsession towards hoarding medicines, food, sanitizers and even face masks.
8. Mentally drained due to a constant state of paranoia and panic
9. Medical professionals getting fatigued due to their 24*7 hospital shifts.

Need for a solution

It’s unfortunate how we are so consumed and scared about the medical aftermath of the COVID-19 that we are completely turning a blind eye towards its massive impact on our mental performance and productivity. If you are a citizen of the planet Earth, then chances are that your daily routine looks exactly like what we have explained above. The coronavirus has forced us to stay locked inside our homes for an indefinite period of time, shooting our sprits down much before it can actually hurt us physically.

The impact of the virus is as horrific on our mental senses as on our physical health, and this certainly is not the time we disregard the importance of a healthy mental state.

A significant portion of the world population is facing the risk of losing their financial support, an overwhelming notion that infuses a high level of stress receptors in the minds of these people. Facing the pressure of an uncertain future and risk of going broke is consistently discomforting people and they are in dire need of an immediate solution.

The world united against COVID-19
world united against covid 19

Even though the situation around the world is unbelievingly grisly and difficult, there is no denying in the fact that the world will be able to get over this. A change might not come immediately but it will certainly happen. Medical institutions and researchers around the world are looking for a cure to the virus and with different countries pooling their medical facilities together to fight unitedly against the common enemy point towards a hopeful future that will eventually happen with the combined effort of the each and all.

Although, no matter how much we rue this microscopic agent of destruction and chaos we all should also be, in a twisted sense of the world, thankful to the virus for making us realize the power of unity and harmony. This common enemy has done what the hundreds of roundtables meetings for peacekeeping by UN like authorities were never able to achieve, it has been successful in bringing together friends, enemies, neutrals and everybody else on the board to work in the direction of global healthcare and safety.

We have seen that rapid decision making and premature entire nation lockdown has been the single most effective way of containing the pandemic. There is a lot that is going right and adding in the process of repairing, however, if you scroll down a twitter or a Facebook page, you end up having mental breakdown which creates panic and anxiety.

Social media platforms are filled with a zillion number of fake news, conspiracy theories, and misinformation, you will more junk than a kitchen dustbin in a social media feed. Online miscreants are trying their best to sanitize the world order by stimulating hateful propaganda against people from specific ethnicity and culture.

Henceforth, it is strongly advisable to filter out the junk and consume positive content that stamps true the notion of world unity and harmony, rather than disrupting the peace order.

Instead, of staying worried and disturbed, you can work out a routine plan for yourself, that will allow you to stay clear of any kind of stress by taking your mind away from the virus. Use your free time constructively, strive for self- betterment and invest in yourself so that the planet would get a better citizen once it decides to open again.

Alopecia and its Most Common Drug List

July 24, 2020

Across centuries, hair has played an important role in our society. It signifies youthfulness and beauty in women and masculinity and virility in men. It is no surprise that hair loss can become a physically as well as emotionally challenging situation for a person. Losing up to 100 strands of hair in a day is normal. It becomes a problem when the hair starts thinning or bald patches begin to appear or the person completely loses his hair. This can give rise to a situation, known as alopecia.

Alopecia is a condition in which there is hair loss, hair thinning or balding of any form any part of the body where hair is found. It is quite a common problem and affects majority of people across age groups and both genders. 80 percent of men experience hair loss at some point in their lives and a startling 40 percent of women too tend to lose hair too, especially after menopause. Alopecia is broad term which is given to hair loss of any form so alopecia can be of many types

Some of the types of alopecia are:

1.Alopecia areata: a condition in which our immune system starts attacking the hair follicles and results in single or extensive patchy hair loss.

2. Alopecia totalis: a type of alopecia areata which results in total loss of hair on scalp.

3. Alopecia unversalis: also a type of alopecia areata but in this condition, there is total loss of hair from the body, including from eyebrows and eyelashes.

4. Alopecia barbae: is a type of alopecia areata localized to the beard area, which can manifest as a single or extensive patch.

5. Traction alopecia: occurs when there is excessive tension on hair strands due to certain hairstyles. It is usually observed in women of East Indian and Afro Caribbean origin. If traction alopecia continues for a long period of time, it can pose a hindrance to the development of new hair follicles and result in permanent hair loss.

6. Anagen Effluvium: is the hair loss caused due to chemical exposure like in chemotherapy. It reverses when the exposure is stopped. It begins as patchy loss of hair and can develop into total hair loss.

7. Telogen Effluvium: refers to a type of hair loss in which more than normal amounts of hair fall out every day. In this, there is general thinning of hair and the condition reverses when the causative factors are removed.

8. Androgenetic alopecia: also called male or female pattern baldness, is the most progressive form of alopecia with extreme thinning of hair such that the scalp becomes visible, affecting both men and women. It is thought to be hereditary in nature.

9. Scarring alopecia: also called cicatricial alopecia, in which permanent hair loss occurs due to rare disorders.

Aging and certain diseases like diabetes, lupus and thyroid can also cause hair loss. Even taking some medicines or undergoing chemotherapy for cancer can take a toll on the hair. Stress, family history, low protein diet and poor nutrition too can contribute to hair loss.

Losing hair can be distressful for anyone. But, in its early stages, it can be easily reversed and arrested through medications and lifestyle amendments. However, if left untreated it can progress to a severe clinical scenario leading to permanent bald patches.

Some forms of alopecia can be treated through medicines while as some forms can resolve on their own with time. So, it all depends on the choice of a person whether to seek medical intervention or wait so that our body can resolve the condition on its own.

Symptoms of Baldness

Some of the commonly observed symptoms of baldness are given below:

  • Gradual thinning of hair on top of head or appearance of circular or patchy bald spots
  • Sudden loosening of hair
  • Full body hair loss
  • Patches of scaling spreading over the scalp
  • Nail changes like pitting, rough and sand papered nails

Drugs Used to Treat Baldness

Hair loss can become an extremely stressing psychological situation for a person. People resort to a number of methods for growing their hair back and stopping hair fall. To aid this process, there a number of drugs available in the market as well that can help the people with alopecia. Some of these drugs are:

1. 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors

5-alpha reductase inhibitors prevent conversion of testosterone to DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) by blocking the action of an enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. This causes an increase in the level of testosterone while the levels of dihydrotestosterone decreases.

Although DHT is required for hair growth, it is somehow detrimental for growth of head hair. It is thought to get attached to androgen receptors present on hair follicles and through an unknown mechanism, starts decreasing the size of follicle. This affects hair growth and leads to baldness.

Patients affected by male pattern baldness or androgenic alopecia can use this drug to prevent hair loss. However, hair loss recurs upon discontinuation of the drug. This drug should only be used by males.

Available as: Tablet

  • Generic Name: finasteride
    Brand Name: Propecia
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription only
    Dosage Form: Tablet
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: No
    Side Effects: Impotence, decreased libido, chills, confusion, cold sweats and dizziness
  • Generic Name: dutasteride
    Brand Name: Avodart
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription only
    Dosage Form: Tablet
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: No
    Side Effects: Abnormal ejaculation, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, chest pain, irregular heartbeat and breathing

2. Androgen independent hair growth stimulator

Minoxidil, a vasodilator is known to help people with baldness. It works well on both males and females. The drug dilates the blood vessels and increases the flow of blood to the scalp. This helps in hair growth. Also, it causes an increase in the active growth phase of hair follicle and the size of hair follicle.

Discontinuing the use of Minoxidil can lead to recurrence of hair loss. Minoxidil is available in concentration of 2% and 5%. Minoxidil with 5% concentration is slightly better.

Available as: Tablet

  • Generic Name: minoxidil
    Brand Names: Rogaine (2%), Avacor (5%), Good Sense (5%), Rogaine Extra Strength (5%)
    US FDA Status: Approved.
    Availability: Prescription and OTC
    Dosage Form: Topical solution
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No, unless benefits outweigh risks
    Alcohol Content: Traces
    Side Effects: Hives, swelling on face,lips,tongue and throat, scalp irritation, unwanted facial hair growth, change in color or texture of your hair and flushing

3. Androgen Receptor Inhibitor

Anti-androgens or androgen receptor inhibitors are drugs that prevent androgens like dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone from binding on to the androgen receptors found on the hair follicle., or, decrease the production of androgens in the body. This helps in decreasing the rate of hair fall.

Available as: Tablet

  • Generic name: spironolactone
    Brand Name: Aldactone
    The U.S. FDA Status: Prescription only
    Dosage Form: Tablet
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No. Prescribed only if there is edema during pregnancy
    Alcohol Content: No
    Side Effects: Abdominal cramping, bleeding gums, breast pain, chest pain, chills, dizziness and headache
  • Generic Name: cyproterone acetate
    Brand Name: Androcur
    U.S. FDA Status: UnapprovedAvailability: Not available in the U.S.A.
    Dosage Form: Tablet
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: No
    Side Effects: Symptoms of osteoporosis, dryness of skin, scalp and hair, lightening of hair color and formation of blood clots

4. Antihistamine as anti-androgentic agent

Cimetidine, an antihistamine, is known to show anti androgenetic property. It inhibits the effect of male sex hormones in the female body. Levels of male hormone, testosterone, can increase in females due to diseases like PCOS. This helps in decreasing the levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the body. DHT is known to have detrimental effect on hair growth. It reduces the size of hair follicles and leads to baldness. Therefore, by decreasing the levels of DHT, hair fall can be decreased. The result shown by this drug has been promising but is strictly restricted to females only.

Available as: Tablet

  • Generic Name: cimetidine
    Brand Name: Tagamet HB
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: OTC
    Dosage Form: Tablet
    Indicated in Pregnancy: Yes, under careful monitoring
    Alcohol Content: No
    Side Effects: Headache, somnolence, diarrhea, dizziness, slurred speech and lethargy

5. Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are the class of drugs that acts similar to the hormones secreted by the adrenal glands, cortisone. As per research published by the International Alliance of hair Restoration Surgeons (IAHRS), corticosteroids are prescribed for hair restoration because these drugs have an ability to regulate the body’s inflammatory response, autoimmune disorders and allergic reactions.

Corticosteroid injections are commonly given in the affected area by the dermatologist in order to protect the hair follicles from the attack of immune system. Multiple injections are given into the skin in and around the bald patches on your head. After around 4 weeks of therapy, you can see new hair growing. The treatment however, does not prevent new patches from appearing.

Topical corticosteroid creams can also be applied on the bald patches. They help in decreasing inflammation around hair follicles and assist in hair growth. Studies indicate that use of topical steroids also help in reducing hair loss. The only limiting factor is the absorption of corticosteroid by the scalp.

Oral corticosteroids are not prescribed now for treating baldness due to the associated health risks and side effects on their long-term use. It should be noted that hair regrowth through corticosteroid treatment may fall out after the treatment is stopped.

Available as: Locally injected, oral and topically applied

a. Locally Injected Corticosteroids

Generic Name: triamcinolone acetonide
Brand Name: Kenalog-10
US FDA Status: FDA approved.
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Injectable
Indicated in Pregnancy: Not Assigned
Alcohol Content: Traces
Side Effects: Redness at site of injection, headache, dizziness, trouble sleeping and weight gain

b. Orally Taken Corticosteroids

Generic Name: prednisone (10-20 mg/day)
Brand Name: Prednisone
US FDA Status: Approved.
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Tablet
Indicated in Pregnancy: No, unless benefits outweigh risks
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Aggression, agitation, dizziness, headache, irritability, mood changes, numbness in arms, weight gain and shortness of breath

c. Topically Applied Corticosteroids

Generic Name: Triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%
Brand Name: Triderm
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Topical cream
Indicated in Pregnancy: No, unless benefits outweigh risks
Alcohol Content: Traces
Side Effects: Blistering, crusting, dryness, burning or flaking of skin, irritation, itching and thinning of skin with easy bruising

Generic Name: betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%,
Brand Name: Diprolene
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Ointment
Indicated in Pregnancy: No, unless benefits outweigh risks
Alcohol Content: Traces
Side Effects: Burning or stinging, itching at site of application, dryness, irritation, thinning of skin with easy bruising and unusually warm skin

Generic Name: fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%
Brand Name: Sylanar
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Topical cream
Indicated in Pregnancy: No, unless benefits outweigh risks
Alcohol Content: Traces
Side Effects: Body aches, headache, sore throat, acne, burning at root of hair nd skin irritation

Generic Name: clobetasol propionate 0.05%
Brand Name: Clobex
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Topical lotion
Indicated in Pregnancy: No, unless benefits outweigh risks
Alcohol Content: Yes
Side Effects: Burning at site of application, dry skin, itching, rash and easy bruising thin skin

6. Anti-Psorioatic Agent

These drugs are used in the treatment of hair loss arising due to psoriasis. Anthralin, a well-known antipsoriatic agent, is an antimitotic substance that can be topically applied to bald patches of skin and scalp. Anthralin interferes with the process of mitosis and prevents replication of DNA in cells under its effect. This stops psoriasis from spreading and hair loss is prevented. Anthralin creams are applied once a day on the bald patchy skin. It is washed off after leaving the cream on the skin for 30-60 minutes.

Available as: Topical application

Generic Name: Anthralin
Brand Name: Dritho-Crème 1%, Dritho-Scalp 0.5%, Zithranol-RR 1.2%
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Tablet
Indicated in Pregnancy;
Alcohol Content:
Side Effects:

7. Antibiotic as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agent

(A) Sulfasalazine

It is an antibiotic that is used in extreme cases of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis, both of which are autoimmune disorders. The drug has shown promising results through its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions.

Available as: Oral administration

Generic Name: Sulfasalazine
Brand Name: Azulfidine
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Tablet
Indicated in Pregnancy: Yes, only under careful supervision
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Joint pain, fever, headache, skin rash, vomiting, nausea, nosebleeds and pale skin

8. Topical Immunotherapy

This therapy is used in cases of extensive alopecia areata, alopecia universalis and alopecia totalis as all the three conditions are autoimmune disorders. These drugs produce allergic rash or contact dermatitis at the site of application, which helps in growing new hair by altering immune response.

Available as: Oral administration.

Generic Name: cyclosporine
Brand Name: Gengraf
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Capsule
Indicated in Pregnancy: No, unless benefits outweigh risks
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Hirsutism, hypertension, nephrotoxicity, tremor, Abdominal pain, back pain, blurred vision, chest pain, chills, dizziness, fever, headache, skin rash and sore throat

Generic Name: methoxsalen
Brand Name: Oxsoralen
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Capsule
Indicated in Pregnancy: No
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Itching, nausea, dizziness, headache, nervousness, trouble sleeping and blistering of skin

Generic Name: thalidomide
Brand Name: Thalomid
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription only
Dosage Form: Capsule
Indicated in Pregnancy: No
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Anxiety, chest pain, dizziness, fast heartbeat, muscle weakness, numbness and troubled breathing

Some experimental drugs belonging to this class are also being used for treating hair fall. They work by diluting the activity of immune system. These are called contact sensitizers.

Drug: Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP)

Generic Name: diphenylcyclopropenone
U.S. FDA Status: Unapproved
Availability: Not available in the market
Dosage Form: Topical solution
Indicated in Pregnancy: No
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Contact utricaria, skin rash, hyperpimentation and white marks

Drug: Dichlorobenzene (DNCB)

Generic Name: dichlorobenzene
U.S. FDA Status: Unapproved
Availability: Not available in the market
Dosage Form: Topical solution
Indicated in Pregnancy: No
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Redness, itching and swelling at site of application.

9. Oral ContraceptivesAlopecia

Women who have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have hormonal disturbances and their bodies tend to produce more male hormone, testosterone. This causes them to develop a number of symptoms, baldness being one of it. A healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, good diet and nutritional supplement along with medicines are used to manage the symptoms of PCOS. Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are prescribed for keeping the hormones in check. They reduce the production of testosterone, other androgens and sex binding globulin (SHBG) by the ovaries. SHBG is a protein that is synthesized by the liver and binds the three hormones, estrogen, dihydrotestosterone and testosterone in both males and females. In women with PCOS, the levels of SHBG is extremely low and therefore the amount of free testosterone in the blood increases, causing baldness and other symptoms.

Through the pill, the production of SHBG increases in the body, which binds the free testosterone and therefore the symptoms subside.

Available as: Oral preparation

Side Effects: Nausea, intermenstrual bleeding, weight gain, headache, decreased libido, mood changes, abnormal vaginal discharge and breast tenderness
Drugs: Following drugs are generally present in combination in OCPs:

  • cyproterone acetate
  • ethinyl estradiol
  • desoestrol
  • drospireone
  • norgestimate

Drug Combination: desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol
Brand: Desogen
The U.S. FDA Status: Discontinued
Dosage Form: Tablet
Indicated in Pregnancy: No
Alcohol Content: No

Drug Combination: desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol
Brand: Ortho-Cept
The U.S. FDA Status: Discontinued
Dosage Form: Oral
Indicated in Pregnancy: No
Alcohol Content: No

Drug Combination: ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate
Brand: Ortho Tri-Cyclen
The U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Dosage Form: Tablet
Indicated in Pregnancy: No
Alcohol Content: No

10. Anti-fungal medicines

Anti-fungal medicines can help in preventing hair loss. Ketoconazole, an anti-fungal medicine is also known to possess property to counteract the effects of dihydrotestosterone, which is known to cause hair loss. It also helps in preventing other scalp infections like dandruff and fungal infections causing hair loss. Another anti-fungal drug, miconazole, is known to possess properties similar to ketoconazole and can also be used for managing hair loss. However, it should be noted that these drugs have not been approved by the U.S. FDA for hair loss treatment and therefore, should only be taken after consulting a dermatologist.

Available As: Topical shampoo and cream
Drug: Ketoconazole
Generic Name: ketoconazole
Brand Name: Nizoral A-D, Nizoral
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: Prescription and OTC
Dosage Form: Topical Shampoo
Indicated in Pregnancy: No, until benefit outweighs fetal risk
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Nausea, skin rash, tingling sensations and pinpoint red spots on skin

Drug: Miconazole
Generic Name: miconazole nitrate
Brand Name: Miconazole 3 Combination Pack
U.S. FDA Status: Approved
Availability: OTC
Dosage Form: Topical cream
Indicated in Pregnancy: No, until benefit outweighs fetal risk
Alcohol Content: No
Side Effects: Skin rash, burning, blistering, redness and skin irritation

11. Vitamin D supplements

Vitamin D is a fa

Cervical Cancer and its Most Common Drug List

July 24, 2020


Cervix is the lower part of the uterus, which is a major secondary sex organ of females. It is usually 2-3 cm long and connects the uterine cavity with the vagina. When the cells in the cervix become cancerous, it gives rise to a condition known as cervical cancer. These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other tissues and organs of the body as well in the later stages of the disease.

Cervical cancer develops extremely slowly but it is possible to diagnose it in the early stages due to the easy availability of pap smear test in the modern times. Early in the disease, no symptoms are observed. Later on, a number of symptoms like pelvic pain, pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal bleeding can be observed.

The exact cause of cervical cancer has not been identified. However, it has been observed that women with a human papilloma virus (HPV) infection are more likely to develop cervical cancer. But, most of the women who have the infection do not develop cancer. Some of the other risk factors include weak immune system, long term use of contraceptive pills, smoking, becoming sexually active at a younger age and having a number of sexual partners.

Cervical cancer takes 10-20 years to develop from the precancerous stage to a full-blown cancer. There are two types of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

Women generally get diagnosed with cervical cancer when they are in the age group of 20- 40 years. Full blown cervical cancer is observed in the women who are in the age group of 50 years. This fact proves that it is possible to stop the disease from becoming a major cancer if it is diagnosed early. [1]


When the cancer is in its early stages, there are no symptoms at all. Therefore, it is important for women in the age group of 20-40 years to get regular pap tests. These tests are extremely useful in not only detecting cancerous cells, but also in detecting any abnormal changes happening in the cervical cells that can lead to cancer in the later years. Early detection of abnormal cells can save the woman from developing this deadly disease.

Some of the most commonly observed symptoms of cervical cancer include:

  • Bleeding in between periods
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Bleeding in post-menopausal women
  • Discomfort during sexual intercourse
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge
  • Vaginal discharge mixed with blood
  • Pelvic pain

There are different stages of cervical cancer, namely:

  • Stage 0, when precancerous cells are present
  • Stage 1, in which cancer cells have invaded deeper tissues of cervix and possibly to the uterus and lymph nodes
  • Stage 2, when the cancer cells are present beyond the cervix and uterus but not far away from the walls of pelvis or lower part of vagina. It might or might not affect the lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3, where cancer cells are found in the lower part of the vagina or walls of pelvis. It might start to block the uterus and urinary tubes. It might or might not affect the nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4, in which the cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum and is spreading out of the pelvis to other organs of the body like lungs, bones, liver and lymph node.


The treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage of the disease. When the cancer is in the early invasive stage, surgery is the best choice for managing the disease. In more advanced stages, chemotherapy along with radiation is selected for treating the cancer. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach for treating this disease. A whole team of specialists is involved in treating the disease.

The treatment of cervical cancer depends on a number of factors like the type and stage of disease, side effects, women’s preference and the overall health of the patient. Women who undergo treatment for cervical cancer are often concerned with their sexual function and fertility. If a pregnant woman develops cervical cancer, she should discuss it with her doctor as to how the treatment will affect her child.

There are a number of methods available for treating cervical cancer. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are the different ways which are used for managing cervical cancer.


During surgery, the tumor as well as the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor are removed through different procedures. Some of the surgical procedures that are used for managing cervical cancer include:

  • Conization
  • LEEP
  • Hysterectomy
  • Bilateral Sal pingo -Oophorectomy
  • Radical Trachelectomy

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy utilizes high energy X rays for killing cancer cells. Radiation therapy can be given as a part of the main treatment or along with surgery. For later stages, radiation is given along with chemotherapy for managing the disease. It is also used for treating cancer that returns after a successful treatment of cervical; cancer. There are 2 types of radiation therapies:

  • External beam radiation
  • Brachytherapy


Chemotherapy is given along with radiation therapy for better results to women who are in the stage IB to IV A of cancer. It can also be the main course of treatment for cervical cancer as the disease has a slow rate of progression. Chemotherapy either involves using a single drug or a combination of drugs for the treatment. These medicines are given intravenously and the patient can go home after receiving their dose of medicines.

However, these drugs can damage the healthy tissue as well and have a lot of side effects.
After the treatment, when the cancer has been totally removed from the body, it is necessary to go for regular health checkups, during which the doctor will examine your vagina and cervix, if it has not been removed. Since cervical cancer is known to return, therefore, it is extremely necessary to go for regular checkups.

Some of the drugs that are used for treating the disease are given below:

1. Alkylating Agents

The drugs belonging to this class inhibit the synthesis of DNA cross links which prevents the cell from growing and multiplying.

  • Generic Name: cisplatin
    Brand Name: Cisplatin
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription
    Dosage Form: Injection
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: Absent
    Side Effects: Kidney toxicity, bone marrow depression, ototoxicity, black stools, dizziness, fever, swelling in face and wheezing
  • Generic Name: ifosfamide
    Brand Name: Ifosfamide
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription
    Dosage Form: Injection
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: Absent
    Side Effects: Agitation, confusion, fever, hallucinations, sore throat, swollen glands, pale skin and difficult urination

2. Antimetabolites

Antimetabolites are the dugs that interfere with the synthesis of DNA by blocking methylation of nucleotides (deoxy uridylic acid). This prevents the cancer cells from multiplying.

  • Generic Name: fluorouracil
    Brand Name: Adrucil
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription
    Dosage Form: Injection
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: Absent
    Side Effects: Diarrhea, heartburn, black stools, nausea, stomach cramps and fever

3. Antimicrotubular

These agents work by promoting the formation of tubulin dimers which stabilizes the existing microtubules and prevents them from getting disassembled. Microtubules are involved in cell multiplication and by inhibiting it, cancer growth is prevented.

  • Generic Name: paclitaxel
    Brand Name: Taxol
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription
    Dosage Form: Injection
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: Absent
    Side Effects: Black stools, blurred vision, confusion, fever, pale skin and shortness of breath

4. Topoisomerase Inhibitors

Topoisomerase enzyme is involved in catalyzing the breaking and joining of phosphodiester bonds of the DNA during a normal cell cycle. Therefore, rugs that block the action of topoisomerase enzyme disrupt the normal cell cycle, generate single and double stranded DNA that disrupts the integrity of the cell. These breaks ultimately lead to cell death.

  • Generic Name: topotecan hydrochloride
    Brand Name: Hycamtin
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription
    Dosage Form: Injection
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: Absent
    Side Effects: Abdominal pain, pain, black stools, chills, fever, cough, pale skin and chest pain

5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Inhibitor

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) are involved with promoting the synthesis of new blood vessels. Drugs that block the action of VEGF do not allow new blood vessels to be formed, which inhibits the growth of cancer cell.

  • Generic Name: bevacizumab
    Brand Name: Avastin
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription
    Dosage Form: Injection
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: Absent
    Side Effects: Abdominal pain, pain, black stools, chills, fever, cough, pale skin and chest pain

6. Cytotoxic Antibiotics

These are antibiotics that have the property of killing the cells or inhibit cell growth by preventing DNA synthesis, microtubule and protein function. They get attached between the building blocks of DNA and disrupt the synthesis and function of DNA and RNA.

  • Generic Name: bleomycin sulfate
    Brand Name: Blenoxane
    U.S. FDA Status: Approved
    Availability: Prescription
    Dosage Form: Injection
    Indicated in Pregnancy: No
    Alcohol Content: Absent
    Side Effects: Abdominal pain, pain, black stools, chills, fever, cough, pale skin and chest pain

Prevention of Cervical Cancer

Although there is no single way to prevent cervical cancer, there are a few things that can be done to decrease the risk of developing cervical cancer. These include cervical screening, avoiding smoking, safe sex practices and cervical cancer vaccination.

HPV vaccines are designed for protecting against cervical cancer. The vaccine is known to provide protection against either 2, 4 or 9 types of HPV. All the vaccines definitely provide protection against HPV type 16 and 18, as they are known to pose maximum risk for cervical cancer. WHO recommends that HPV vaccine should be made a part of the routine vaccination program throughout the world. Following are the different vaccines available for providing protection against the cancer:

  • Recombinant HPV bivalent vaccine
  • Recombinant HPV quadrivalent vaccine
  • Recombinant HPV nonavalent vaccine

OTC Drugs Available

There are no over the counter medicines available for treating cervical cancer. The patients should also try not to self-medicate and take any medicine only after consulting a doctor.

Here is How Hunter Genes Plays a Vital Role in Diabetes

July 24, 2020

Table of Contents

Neanderthals and the Modern Man

Hundreds and thousands of years ago, when Neanderthals roamed on this planet, hunting was their main source of food. They were excellent tool makers and great hunters. Modern humans co-existed with them and it is thought that they Neanderthals and the early humans mated a long time ago and gave rise to Homo sapiens lineage. From there, the ‘hunter’ gene got introduced in the modern human population.  It is even believed that the Neanderthal genes might be the reason for all human progress.

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Neanderthal Genes in Modern Man’s Genome

Even today, we are carrying Neanderthal genes in our genetic pool and there is evidence that indicates that if these genes get activated, it can give certain characteristics to the humans that point towards our hunter lineage.  As per the recent discovery, we are carrying so much Neanderthal genes that we are yet to recognize its full potential.

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Characteristics of ‘Hunter’ Gene

Hunters required some peculiar characteristics in order to be an avid hunter, such as:

  • short attention span
  • distorted sense of time
  • impulsiveness
  • poor planning and organizing skills
  • attraction to novelty
  • hyperfocus

Along with this, you can blame the Neanderthal gene for giving you diabetes. There have been extensive studies done in order to show some light on this hypothesis.

The genomes of hundreds and thousands of Asians and Europeans were compared to the Neanderthal DNA from the toe bone. Of the 1 to 4% of non-African genetic make-up which is thought to have come from Neanderthals, it was found that large amounts of Neanderthal DNA were found in the hair and skin genes. It suggested that the Neanderthal DNA influenced tougher, thicker hair and skin, lighter skin color that was more suitable for surviving in the cooler, darker environment of Eurasia.

It is also believed that a number of diseases like depression, diabetes and autoimmune disorders like lupus, Crohn’s disease and biliary cirrhosis came from the Neanderthals.

Previously, it was not clear how these genes actually came into play, but now we have a few leads in this direction.

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How Hunter Genes Affect Human Population?

Around 1004 genomes of modern humans were screened and different regions bearing the Neanderthal versions of genes were identified. Surprising results were obtained from this study.

There is no evidence that proves whether or not our Neanderthal cousins suffered from these diseases or not, or, whether these mutations show their effect only in modern humans.

Another study done on the Latin American population described that a gene variant that is known to cause diabetes has a high frequency in the population. Those people who carried the higher risk version of the gene were found to be 25% more likely to develop diabetes than those who did not. Additionally, those who inherited this the copy of the gene from both the parents were 50% more likely to get the disease. The higher risk version of the gene is found in nearly half of the people with recent Native American ancestry and has been named SLC16A11.

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Role of SLC16A11

Neanderthal is a northern species whereas modern humans are essentially a sub-Saharan African species. Since Neanderthals had origins in a cold climate, their DNA promoted the storage of fat and other metabolic as well as immune system adaptations that made it easier for them to survive in chilly temperatures.

When African humans moved north, there was interbreeding between them which gave rise to the modern man who went on to populate Asia and Europe. As humans went on to inhabit other areas with harsher climates, their genomes latched more and more onto Neanderthal variants that helped them to survive.

The researchers discovered a gene that increases the chances of developing type II diabetes in people, known as SLC16A11. This gene gets activated in the liver and people who have this gene are 25% more likely to develop diabetes than those who do not have this gene.

Scientists discovered that the levels of protein encoded by this gene alters the amount of a specific type of fat that has been linked to play a major role in increasing the risk of type II diabetes.

SLC16A11 belongs to a family of genes that are involved in coding proteins that help in transporting metabolites. When the levels of SLC16A11 protein are altered, the amount of fat a particular fat changes, which is known to increase the risk of developing diabetes. These observations indicate that SLC16A11 could play an important role in developing diabetes.

A variant form of the gene SLC16A11 is found in about 20% of East Asians, while its frequency is quite rare in populations in Europe and Africa. This gene sequence has been discovered in the newly sequenced Neanderthal genome.

One study also pointed out that Neanderthal DNA promoted elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, which is the good kind of cholesterol.

However, it is extremely difficult to ascertain the actual ties between Neanderthal DNA and diseases like gestational diabetes.

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One of the most exciting aspects of discovering the link between diabetes and the hunter genes is we have uncovered new and exciting aspects behind biology of diabetes, a disease that is gradually becoming a global epidemic. Scientists believe that this discovery will help in assessing risk and develop novel treatment methods for diabetes.

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